tv Searching For Sanctuary P2 Al Jazeera January 3, 2019 12:32pm-1:01pm +03
but during the golden age astronomers developed more sophisticated astral apes this one is very very elaborate and it's multi-functional restrooms in many ways with the the computers of the day and they basically served a number of purposes you can use it to find the time of day or night you could decide prayer times you could navigate you could measure the heights of buildings or distances there are all sorts you can see all that exists with this disk because of course these are all moving parts is it possible to to take it apart yes and so when and when we can a single map of the stars would only be correct for one location on the earth but these sophisticated astrally were designed to work in many places a later astrid such as the seventeenth century astrid had a number of different plates engraved on both sides and each one could be used for a different city to tell the time to plot the motions of the stars or whatever it
is that you needed your astraweb to do so wherever you were in the world you'd use the would have many of the scar absolutely with all its intricate markings and measurements to use an astral leg you already needed a good working knowledge of astronomy so here we have five plates inside you then adjust this. so you you put the right plates in position yes you take a measurement of a particular star. and then you and then you adjust the reach over the correct plate and that gives you a map of the sky where you are. asked . for astronomers in the golden age modern astronomers have access to a vast array of instruments such as the. the lovell radio telescope with george
will bank in the u.k. . during the golden age astronomers would come together from across the world to cooperate and that way of working is still imbedded in astronomy today stratham is working with this telescope often collaborate with other telescopes and astronomers internationally unlike a convention with telescopes it doesn't capture light through a lens but rather uses a method that collects very weak radio signals from deep in space allowing us to map the universe in ever greater detail. now tim because the level telescope is a radio telescope in the sky in a way that we can't see every day sees the invisible universe i've got a picture here of what the level telescope sees if we could see radio waves this is the way the sky would appear that's our milky way galaxy what we see in the picture
is not the stars that we see with our eyes is the stuff between the stars one of the really interesting things i think is easy is look at planets around of the stars there's a picture here of young star in our galaxy. the stars at the center and then around it there is a disk of gas and dust but the interesting thing here of the dark circles we think that they're formed by planets that of that have formed inside the disk and as those planets circle around they sweep the gas of the dust and they leave behind these empty gaps it's amazing isn't it that we're not talking about planets going around our own sun system these are planets going around distant stars hundreds of light years away and many many thousands of these parts maybe billions in fact in our own milky way galaxy and you mentioned that image was taken by another telescope this is part of a larger collaboration to get these sort of sharp views we have to combine signals from many telescopes spread across the country and even across the. on itself so
this shows us all the locations of the various radio telescopes across europe out into china down into south africa and we even with these telescopes with a russian spacecraft that's all but in the earth so weak so we end up making telescopes the size of the planet or even larger than the places they're all contributing their own data so a single task will give you a poor view by working together with these telescopes you know in these other countries we all joined forces to make this planet sized shows the detail this idea of scientists working collaboratively together particularly in astronomy is something that goes back a thousand years to the golden age it was in baghdad around the ninth century when we first start to see astronomers working in groups to solve big problems in astronomy something that the greeks didn't do something that only really emerged in the golden age and has survived so successfully to this day.
one of the most important observatories of the golden age was called the observatory built in twelve fifty nine in persia for the greatest honor. when the mongols invaded they captured the mountain force of our movements well to see worked not only did he convince the mongol general paul arkell or helluva car to spare his life he convinced him to build him a new observatory in return promise to provide the general with his astrological chart so that he'd know what day to go to battle the more of observatory became the most important of its day and a great hub for international find to fit collaboration. of course what's great about the morale observatory in the storm is that work there isn't the observations they made they didn't have telescopes but it's the mathematical tricks they developed that will be influential in astronomy for centuries. to come and i want to show you something here so this is
a diagram from two seas work people like to see when they're looking at trying to explain how the stars and planets moved they were trying to develop the math to make it sensible north you know they were using the greek model which had got incredibly complicated of course the greeks believed that the earth was centers or system and in order to make the mathematical model fit the observations of the way in which the planets appeared to move on the sky they had to put all these ridiculously complicated features into it to the model it got very very messy thurgood's within circles going around other circles and that's that's where his genius comes in because this diagram that to see couple simplified a lot of that show you what's supposed to happen you see this small circle going around the big one if you trace a point on the perimeter it's moving up and down in a straight line and that's turned out to be a very useful trick that simplified
a lot of that complicated math. but what's really fascinating compare this text written in arabic. with this one is an identical one but written in latin and what's fascinating is the letters labeling the points followed the arabic alphabet not the latin alphabet so. a b g d clearly whoever through this knew about two c's work and the couple where the man who drew this was copernicus so this is copernicus who came up with the idea that rather than the earth being the center of the whole system it was the sun senator and all the planets including the earth revolved around revolved around it and that's the picture that we have today copernicus was and is regarded as the father of modern science because of this great revolution and yet what's so fascinating is that this was built on two she's ideas yes so it shows the continuity of science copernicus owes this debt to these medieval astronomers from the goldeneye.
islam itself was a significant reason behind many of the early explorations and discoveries in the straw to me during the golden age there was a need to know the accurate time for prayer the direction to face towards mecca and the day some religious festivals according to the moon a calendar astronomical infinite yesterday played a very important role in this. were in the early. luong. was. one of the requirements of islam was to know which direction mecca was in order to face
towards it during prayer now during the early days of the empire it wasn't so large and this wasn't a problem the scholars of the golden age were very proficient at making. but as the empire grew and stretched from india in the east all the way to spain and in the sea in the west it was much more of an issue because the scholars also knew that the earth wasn't flat now why does this matter well if you were a muslim in cordoba then facing towards mecca if you just looked at a flat map would involve pointing roughly southeast but on the globe it's different if i attach this string one end to cordoba and the other to mecca then you see the line actually takes you east to begin with and then curves down to the southeast so it's not at all obvious without understanding that the earth is a sphere this meant that these stores had to develop an area of mathematics called spherical geometry which was exceptionally advanced four thousand years ago.
but to use the spherical geometry first needed to know the size of the year the ancient greeks had provided several estimates of this. their method was clever but crude it involved measuring the angle of the sun at a particular time of day and then walking in a straight line in a particular direction until the angle changed by one degree all they then needed to do was calculate how far they need to walk for the angle to change by three hundred sixty degrees that would give them the circumference of the earth be early night century about it caleb moon wanted to improve on this estimate so he commanded a group of astronomers to repeat it however the method involved them trudging through the desert for over one hundred kilometers a method that was prone to error. two hundred years later in the eleventh century the persian astronomer rooney came up with
a much easier and more accurate method of estimating the size of the earth but it did involve climbing a mountain that looked out over the horizon. i'll be really was a prolific scholar who even debated about whether the earth was moving he explained how to work out the size of the earth in his book on the determination of the coordinates of cities first he measured the mountains heights elbow room he then had to climb to the top of the mountain and armed with an astral ape and a plumb line he then measured the angle of dip from the horizontal down to the distant horizon now this was just half a degree so he had to be incredibly precise but armed with this information he could then use a more clever geometry to calculate the circumference of the earth let me show you . imagine this circle. is the earth. and this
is the rooney's mountain. now looking across horizontally he measured the angle of the. the horizon. this angle here now if you draw two lines one through the center of the earth from the mountain and the other from where the line touches the horizon you end up with a right angled triangle now knew the angle he measured is the same as this angle inside the armed with these two pieces of information the size of this angle and the height of the mountain he was able to use geometry to work out. the radius of the earth multiplying this number. gives him the complete succumb friends he got to within one percent of the value we know today about forty thousand
kilometers which is pretty remarkable. it's easy to think that astronomy went to sleep after the ancient greeks didn't wake up again until copernicus in the fifteenth century but developments in the stormy continued in spain the middle east and central asia throughout medieval times through a nascent scientists of europe who created modern the strong army were building on the work of people like rooney and to see who in turn were building on the knowledge passed over to them from the earliest civilizations today in the twenty first century international teams of scientists are still looking to the stars and mapping the cosmos using ever larger telescopes but we must remember that they owe a huge debt of gratitude to those astronomers of the morag observatory. the.
next time we are cover how the scholars of the slam make world mathematics science . we delve into the equations of flights and discover how the mathematicians of the golden age laid the foundations of algebra it's extraordinary that i made that step to the cubic equation. we see the role they played in the evolution of numbers themselves everywhere today we use this decimal system and we forget how difficult it was before it existed. and we reveal how their legacy has led to the mathematics behind the fastest car in the world. is the longest standing recorded history and up till this point nobody has broken it that's about to change we're building a new car to go a lot faster. in the next episode of science in
a golden age i'll be exploring the contributions made by scholars during the medieval islamic period in the field of mathematics. the term algebra can be traced back to the arabic word algebra we're going to the limits of modern technology forty percent falls to the speed of sound they gave us the final building block find they discovered it met evil taunts is astonishing science in a golden age with jim alkalinity on al-jazeera. the most memorable moment of al-jazeera was when i was on air as hosni mubarak fell with the crowds in tahrir square talking. to us if something happens anywhere in the world al jazeera is in place we're able to cover this like no other news organization. were able to do it properly. and that is our strength. thanks love to make loans to sufferings because behind the suffering
a millions of taxpayers because those taxpayers never go away is a new one born every single day a nineteen it is an urgent national missile city and it could be officially requested ration of the support mechanism we created together because i happen to live in creeks somehow i'm a sinner i'm a bad person. that's machine on al-jazeera. was set up what out ways to considering a democratic bill which got out past this chamber at which the president. the u.s. government shutdown continues as republicans say proposed legislation from the
democrats is a no go. this is al jazeera live from doha also coming up. but i don't want to be in syria forever. it's sand and it's death donald trump defends his decision to withdraw u.s. troops from syria plus why life is about to get harder for palestinian prisoners in israeli jails and apple says it expects to lose billions in the coming months and its boss blames the u.s. china trade war. u.s. president donald trump has asked congress to return to the white house on friday after both sides failed to reach a deal to end the partial government shutdown trump said his prepared to let the shutdown go on indefinitely unless he gets funding to build
a wall on the border with mexico. for some washington. the garbage cans were overflowing outside the white house on the twelfth day of the partial government shutdown inside the president had convened his full cabinet to extol the virtues of his wall and blame the democrats for a budget impasse that donald trump and said he would take full responsibility for just a few weeks earlier i will be the one to shut it down i'm not going to blame you for he then spoke to the press to be said he was now insisting on five point six billion dollars for the wall not even the two point five billion for a barrier for the white house had offered democrats as a compromise once the shutdown began. in the street or this. could be a long time and it could be quickly could be a long time it's it's too important a subject to walk away from later in the afternoon the democratic leadership made its way to the. white house for the first direct talks with the president in weeks however this was organized as
a border security briefing by department of homeland security officials not as a negotiation clearly the president was continuing to frame the shutdown as a failure of democrats to understand what he says is an emergency at the southern border even as illegal border crossings are at historic lows and after the meeting the democrats said their plans have not changed they are now feeling the heat it is not helping the president it is not helping the republicans to be the owners of this shutdown whereas in a way the president's to open up government we are giving him a republican path to do that why would he not deal with incoming house speaker nancy pelosi has made it clear that she intends to pass several bills in the house on thursday to reopen the government with one point three billion dollars for border security but no funding for troops wolf but to end the shutdown the senate will need to post those bills as well and the republican leadership there says it has no intention of even debasing them as i've said consistently for the
last two weeks the senate will not waste considering a democratic bill which cannot pass this chamber in which the president. the president didn't receive five billion dollars for the war when republicans controlled both houses of congress now that power is split that goal seems all but impossible more talks are being planned for friday she ever turns the al-jazeera washington while the u.s. congress sauces new two year session on thursday a chance republican party will have a slightly larger senate majority but democrats will be in charge of the house of representatives and as was in jordan reports their priorities will represent a challenge to try on many levels. new year new session of congress the public's expectations of success are high the american public is so much more engaged than they normally are they are paying attention to politics they're not just letting things happen after the november elections the republicans retain control of the
senate but it's the democrats who now run the house their ranks are younger more liberal more ethnically diverse and filled with many more women. they want to check president don't trump policies and to pass legislation of their own immigration reform investigating saudi arabia's ties to the u.s. and expanding health care coverage but first ending the federal government shutdown how dangerous is this and why we need a wall the president wants up to five billion dollars for a border wall between the u.s. and mexico and he says he won't reopen the government unless he gets that money democrats say they won't give the president money for anyone that means eight hundred thousand federal workers aren't being paid and a variety of federal services are not available until further notice the president
seems to be stuck on a wall or barrier or whatever it is that he's calling it today but i think that they've given him plenty of options plenty of ways to open the government president trouble owns the shutdown he is the person who said that he was going to shut down the government he needs to go away from an impractical wall and we're going to reopen the government break up. a kind of gridlock reading the members of the one hundred sixteenth congress their first chance to show the public that they can solve the most difficult of political problems russell and jordan al-jazeera washington. or president trump has described syria's war as sand and death while defending his decision to withdraw u.s. troops from the country ski. king at a cabinet meeting on wednesday trying didn't provide a timetable for the military exit he announced last month against the advice of his defense chiefs but he did say he wants to protect kurdish people in syria has been accused of abandoning the kurdish white b.g. who have been key allies in the fight against. i know this is fast or slow but i
think what's behind us but as somebody said for months but i didn't i didn't say that either i'm getting out we're getting out of syria look we don't want syria obama gave up syria years ago when he didn't violate the red line i did when i shot fifty nine missiles and but that was a long time later so syria was lost long ago it was lost long ago and besides that i don't want we're talking about sand and death that's what we're talking about what but we want to protect the kurds never the less we want to protect the courage but i don't want to be in syria forever it's safe and and it's death now dan has me is director of the center for middle east studies at denver university he says it's clear donald trump isn't listening to his top advices. i think there's just a lot of you know concern and you know consternation about the absence of any sort
of u.s. strategy with respect to the middle east with respect to syria with respect to the potential of you know greater conflict and of all the as a result of this rash deceit dish decision. one thing that is clear though i think that we can learn from these recent comments both today and on december nineteenth when trump announced his withdrawal is a trap is very much his own man he's not listening to you know john bolton he's not listening to his generals he's making his own foreign policy in his reach really catering to the isolationist stream of the core base of american supporters who support him roughly thirty percent right or wrong and he's very much his own men in syria itself at least said he one people are dead after days of intense fighting between two armed groups in the north it's happening in parts of two provinces aleppo and labe. as in turkey backs rebel forces and blaming each other for
starting the violence as the worst fighting in this part of the country in three months mohammed oddo has the latest from the tekkie syria border. syrian rule one it does describe the latest spate of fighting the last in mosul syria in the past three months fighters and loyal to the al qaida free ated heya to creedal shum are said cut it out an offensive against tuchis box city and rebels with a view of dividing destroying the free and the loss on the other side of the aleppo countryside said to have taken control of the threat to dig tunnels visits and villages around it and now the toughest syrian rebels are calling for help from the force meant to try and repulse the offensive against them by the al qaeda affiliates all this comes a little over a week since the president of the united states donald trump announced the
withdrawal of about two thousand u.s. troops were stationed in syria there has been a scramble to fill the vacuum that when a vent truly been left by the with the broom of the u.s. forces with turkey and iran did in the way tuck your force has promised the united states a full military ally it will deal with not only remnants of i said but also those al qaeda affiliates and could be the main reason why the higher the time he was shot has now cut it out on offensive on the turkish allies in syria of course talking also wants to cut out on a talk on the tom of member drew it has been controlled by the syrian kurds and right now we do not know when the offensive is going to happen but turkey has been massing troops such as florida and has put its allies the free syrian army on a wall footing in other world news the head of apple has partly blamed a u.s.
presidents trade war with china for missing out on billions of dollars worth of business ten coke warned of lower than expected earnings for the first quarter of this year also citing. we could demand from china last year washington and beijing impose a series of tit for tat tat on each other's goods sean nichols is a reporter at the register a technology news and opinion website he says it's not just a trade war affecting apple think what apple would like to do is really kind of as much as possible site china site the trade we're saying is issues as the cause of this but as you noted the over the last couple years apple has significant lee increased the price of the i phone with jim cook special explanation of this is you're seeing kind of a combination of the trade wars kind of causing the problems in china kind of worries over the economy and that's making people less likely to go in and purchase apple products so it's so you're seeing both apple saying this is the train where
the economic policies but it's also you know our products are more expensive and fewer people want to go to the store and pay that much for a phone for hours trading there was something like seven point five percent drop in apple's share price i mean this isn't a huge hit for apple as far as the shortfall i believe it's only about four or five billion out of and eighty four billion dollars revenue. for the quarter but if this is something that investors are paying attention to and they did punish apple pretty significantly after hours trading i still ahead on al-jazeera we hear from the youth movement accused of causing election violence in bangladesh thus argentina's cloned polo ponies we ask. scientists our writing roughshod over i suppose consideration. from.